Elixir tip: relationship names of classes in other modules

Almost all examples of Elixir code have all the Entity classes in the same module, for example:

class User(Entity):

    has_many('newsitems', of_kind='NewsItem')

class NewsItem(Entity):

    belongs_to('author', of_kind='User')

However, I personally find that once you get beyond 3-4 classes in the same module it gets a bit unwieldy, moreso if you add additional methods to those classes. Although I dislike the way that Rails’ ActiveRecord encourages one file per class (actually,there is a lot I dislike about the way Rails does class loading, but that’s the subject for another post) I prefer to group model classes into logical modules.

However, one thing to remember when using Elixir, the of_kind argument in belongs_to, has_many, etc must then take the full module path name rather than just the class name, so if we split up the above code into two files, myapp/models/user.py and myapp/models/news.py, we would do this:


class User(Entity):

    has_many('newsitems', of_kind='myapp.models.news.NewsItem')


class NewsItem(Entity):

    belongs_to('author', of_kind='myapp.models.user.User')

Adding event callbacks to SQLAlchemy/Elixir classes

Rails’ ActiveRecord makes it quite easy to ad event callbacks when an object is inserted, updated or deleted:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
    before_create :encrypt_password

    def encrypt_password


In SQLAlchemy we can do the same with a MapperExtension:

from sqlalchemy.orm.mapper import MapperExtension
class EncryptField(MapperExtension):

    self.__init__(self, field_for_encryption):
        self.field = field_for_encryption

    def before_insert(self, mapper, connection, instance):
         encrypted_value = do_some_encryption(getattr(instance, self.field))
         setattr(instance, self.field, encrypted_value)

When we declare our mapper, we pass an instance of this class to the extension argument. This can be a single MapperExtension instance, or list of instances(so we can chain extensions together):

users_mapper = mapper(User, users_table,  extension = EncryptField('password'))

If you are using Elixir you have to use the using_mapper_options statement:

class User(Entity):

     has_field('password', String(50))
     using_mapper_options(extension = EncryptField('password'))

The MapperExtension class provides various methods for you to override, for example before and after insert/update/delete and when the object is retrieved from the database.

OK, but what we really want is something like this:

class User(Entity):

    has_field('password', String(50))

    def encrypt_password(self):
        self.password = do_some_encryption(self.password)

With Elixir we can do this with a Statement. Elixir infact is little more than Statements (DSLs) on top of SQLAlchemy. See http://cleverdevil.org/computing/52/ for an excellent introduction to Statements.

First, we need a MapperExtension subclass that handles the before_insert behaviour in a generic way:

from sqlalchemy.orm.mapper import MapperExtension
class MapperExtensionProxy(MapperExtension):

     def before_insert(self, mapper, connection, instance):
         if has_attr(instance, '__before_insert__'): instance.before_insert()

This simply checks if our Entity subclass has the __before_insert__ method (underscores added to prevent possible name clashes) and calls that method. We could do exactly the same with other behaviours, such as after_insert, before_destroy, etc; see the MapperExtension docs for a list of methods and arguments.

Then, we need to create the Statement class. This is just a plain Python new-style class:

from elixir.statements import Statement

class BeforeInsert(object):

    def __init__(self, entity, *callbacks):
        add_extension_proxy(entity, 'before_insert', callbacks)

before_insert = Statement(BeforeInsert)

The add_extension_proxy function simply adds the appropriate behaviour to the Entity class, then adds the MapperExtensionProxy object to the list of extensions the Entity has (that way, we don’t override other extensions we might want to use).

So now we can do this:

class User(Entity):

    has_field('password', String(50))

    def encrypt_password(self):
        self.password = do_some_encryption(self.password)

   def email_new_user(self):
        self.send_notification_mail('Welcome to the system')

   def email_ex_user(self):
        self.send_notificiation_mail('Your account is about to be destroyed, Bye!')

The full code for adding these events to Elixir can be found here.

Pylons, or Python is fun again !

I’ve always liked Python. I started using it back in 2003, and it’s always been my first choice when writing stuff like sysadmin scripts, built tasks, RSS feed readers, that kind of thing.

However, my bread and butter is web development, and Python never had a compelling story for me in that field. Zope/Plone is horrendously bloated and complex (the infamous Z-shaped learning curve), Django is nice and well thought out, but I’ve found it more for developing dynamic web sites; it gets in the way too much for complex web apps. Turbogears started out well, but seems broken and lacking in direction these days. Then we have a number of smaller, or older, frameworks – web.py, Quixote, snakelets, WebWare…either too small a developer base, not actively developed, or just not what I’m looking for.

So, for web development, I’ve used J(2)EE, PHP and more recently, Rails. The latter has been the most fun, and Ruby is a nice language to work with. However, despite the deluge of Ruby hype and praise (much of it justified) I still prefer Python. Maybe it just fits my brain better, maybe it’s the scope and size of the libraries. I find Ruby harder to understand and debug, perhaps because of its Perlish syntax and metaprogramming tricks. This is not meant as flamebait: I just find Python easier for getting things done.

I can think better in Python; I find the process harder in Ruby, and often find there’s always a “better” way of doing it. As with Perl, I feel that while I may be a competent Ruby programmer, I’ll never be a Ruby guru (I think that may be the case of many Rails developers : they use Rails and its plugins without really needing to understand Ruby at any deeper level, thanks to Rails’ DSLs). However, the lack of a compelling framework, which would give me the same kind of productivity as Rails, has held me back from using Python for serious web projects.

Until I found Pylons. Unlike Rails and Django, Pylons is not marketed in any way; it is strictly minimalist, a “hacker’s framework”. This will not appeal to those who turn to Rails or Django for an out of the box solution with their decisions made for them (and nothing wrong with that, if you just want to get your project out the door), but it appeals to someone who enjoys building something just the way they want it, and dislikes “opinionated” frameworks that like to think they always know better.

Superficially, Pylons resembles Rails: it follows the same MVC pattern, supports AJAX, and uses Routes and helpers. That’s where the similarity ends. For starters, there’s no ActiveRecord: you provide your own model; most Pylons developers go with SQLAlchemy, possibly one of the finest ORMs in any language. Further, rather than just ERB on the menu, you can choose your own template engine. Myghty is the current default, but this is soon to be replaced with the awesome Mako, and you can use for example Genshi or Kid if you prefer something more XML-based, or Jinja if you like Django’s minimalist templates.

The most interesting thing about Pylons however is that it runs on Paste and WSGI, the Python web server gateway standard. You can run your Pylons apps on mod_python, FastCGI, SCGI, whatever you want, and build your own custom frameworks with Paste templates.

I can’t remember where I saw the quote, but David Heinemeier Hansson, the leading Rails developer, once compared Rails to a Ferrari. Well, a Ferrari is nice (and maybe not the best comparison, considering the performance of Ruby) but Pylons + SQLAlchemy + Mako is more like James Bond’s Aston Martin, customized by Q. It just looks like a normal car but comes with ejector seats, bulletproof glass and tons of gadgets. I know which one I’d like to drive.